Note: Custodial societies are groupy unless under a hierarchy. There is complex polyphony in permanent custodial groups with lots of independent specialists, as in the American corvee. Family reciprocity among the French, Haitians, Irish, and West Africans. In the West Indies they reciprocate at every harvest, a big occasion for singing. One group does everybody's field. Members can drop out. In a corvee situation work is not mutual but imposed. European preoccupation with love and death not applicable to Africa. Arensberg: the Pygmies don't have a ministry of hate and war. Sustained development of these emotions requires religious symbols - "horror propaganda" (demons and underworld). According to Kramer, the Sumerians' earliest writings are about herbs and woods, later these are personified. Surprisingly small, the early towns had a surplus. Later the towns had developed into cities mired in endless wars. Other kinds of work organization: contractual, managerial (work arranged through chiefs), autonomous. Familial contractual (Samoans), custodial autonomous (Somali). Contracts may be temporary or permanent. Alan Lomax: In "matri" families the woman has authority, she may have three boys competing for her attention. She will give each a chance to be heard, if she runs her show right. Negro acceptance of non-exclusive possession of women contrasted to Blondie and Dagwood ideal (Arensberg). Lomax: When joined in singing with the Georgia Sea Island Singers, they would say “stop singing my part." African-American singers jump around and keep other people from edging in on their parts. Initiation of activity. Manus have alternate leadership. They are not polyphonous but learn polyphony with great ease. Seamlessness is buried in a society that prepares them for this, whereas we would have to practice to get it right, they learn quickly. Some complementary societies: Burmese, Romans, Americans, Vietnamese. Complementary seamless societies: Hawaiians, Basque (complete and endless association with themselves - all decide together).