Note: Three cults: Shango, Umbanda, and Candomble. Feminine men and masculine women tolerated in cults because seen as possessed by god of opposite sex. Women are not permitted at the festival because they could be menstruating. Subject to severe punishment, have to bring animals for sacrifice (results in more food for group). Cult seen as working out of group problem. Menstruating women represent castration and male fear of harming fetus. Presence impedes supernatural. Three phases of the ritual: Matanza, the sacrifice (real or symbolic). Always private. Music slow and solemn. There is clear separation of leaders and followers. Altars displayed. Possession by the Orishas, accompanied by public festival and dancing. Festival can last from two to six days. Despacho, private disposal of remains of banquet and animal. Purification of everything that has been touched by blood. People present at matanza required to cleanse their bodies. Music for this is solemn and sad. Umbanda is the most syncretized and most recent. No improvising during the ritual. Ogans (special priests) never get possessed but feel inspiration while singing and may create new words to songs to be sung later. Use Portuguese. Candomble and Shango: songs are transmitted orally in African language (Yoruba). Priests know meaning but followers (filias) do not. Filias get possessed by orisha; dance, but don't sing. There are three drums, in some places called mother, father, and child. Orishas are called by the drums and sung invocations. Shango and Candomble have the strictest organization and are the oldest (go back 350 years).