Note: In private life participants sing solo with guitar. When they sing in chorus it is a folkloric projection of the cults, as in Carnival. Some groups in Carnival are remnants of very old cults and are called Candomble of the Streets. Discussion of choral singing by Afro-Brazilians. No record of work songs with exception of fishing ritual ceremony, call-and-response with drums. Elbein calls singing games "projection of cults." Lomax: Work songs for laying track survived in New York until the 1950s. Explains that Negro song style changes quickly. Work songs are most elusive. Victor Grauer: Perhaps they sing in groups only in special, formal circumstances. Elbein: Perhaps because cults are forbidden there is a kind of self-censorship. No one has drums in his house, for example. Lomax: This means that Brazilian Negroes are strongly Europeanized. Group singing with call and response is characteristic of Southern Negroes and the West Indies. Acculturation is a two-way process. You have to look for things before they disappear. Alan discusses rate of style change in the Caribbean. Western Europe tends to stick to same costumes, rituals. Significance of Carnival costumes. Negroes in Brazil are an impoverished class. During Carnival they dress like Portuguese aristocrats with elaborate wigs and lace gloves. It is very dangerous for white people to be in the street. People are knifed in stomach. Identification and killing persecutory object. Capoeira: a martial art using whole body especially legs, holding knives between the toes. During the slave rebellion of 1839 capoiera groups used to be called "the flying ones." Capoiera survives in Bahia. Alan Lomax contrasts African fighting groups of brothers to European ones where two knights fight each other. Symbolism of musical instruments: drums. Elbein: drum is related to mother and child, water related earth to sky. Made of calabash. Played with two sticks. Gives spirits freedom to go in and out of cult and not damage member inside. Drums change from cult to cult. Candomble drums are the same as in Cuba and Trinidad. Clothes: Shango groups don't change clothes, women wear long skirts with special blouses and head covering. Candomble men wear white trousers, sacred necklaces, change when possessed. Orishas have distinguishing colors. Umbanda wear long white dresses, spirits manifest themselves through choreography. Umbanda is the most syncretized. They have altar inside with statues of Catholic saints.