Note: Discussion of meaning of projection in cults. Animal is substituted for persecutory object. By drinking its blood devotees incorporate material substance of god/father/animal. Function of the songs is to label ritual sacrifice. First phase is working out of fantasized elimination of persecutory object. Everyone who participates in the killing must eat flesh of the god; they then take on the role of the god killed. Guilt is shared. Formal regulation through liturgy makes it socially acceptable. There is collective expiation and purification. Elbein: Carnival is the remnant of a Dionysian cult. Christ is rebel son, self-identified with God when received Holy Spirit, punished self by killing self.