Note: Alan Jabbour on the uniformity of American fiddle music and its origin in the upper South. Developments in fiddle playing occurred in the English speaking world in the late eighteenth century make its fiddle styles cousins with a common ancestor. Bow is key element in fiddling. Change of direction after each note (can appear virtuosity when done extremely rapidly) versus grouping of notes on the same bow (requires more skill). Characteristic American bowing pattern: sixteenth-note grouping of two groups of three followed by two notes - produces shifting syncopation, occurs from Texas to Virginia, considered Appalachian but is used in both black and white fiddling and is African American contribution. Occurs sporadically in Irish fiddling, predominates in America. Possibility of Native American contribution. Melodies in older repertoires typically have two parts, high and low. The low part is most interesting the upper part filler. In upper South, tunes typically begin with the upper part and the lower part is filler. Faint syncretic echo of American Indian tunes? Alan Lomax: Charlotte Hess's American Indian recordings show florid ornamentation. There is an Indian tang in Cajun music Cherokee influence on upper South not studied yet. Richard Neville claimed that buck dancing not African, but from Indian deer dance. Alan Jabbour: Three styles of North American male solo dance. Three confluent cultures. Alan Lomax: Scots Irish influence on Upper South. Alan Jabbour: Not sorted out yet. Alan Lomax: Scots Irish come from areas of Ireland with heavy Norse population - Presbyterian Norsemen. Pennsylvania Germans arrived very impoverished and acquired material culture here. Alan then gives the phone to Gail to discuss her dance research in Haywood Co., North Carolina; she gives recommendations for other scholars and publications dealing with the topic.