Note: The physiological and emotional origins of vocal production. Vocalization as gesture. Mouth as organ of assimilation and elimination. Oral gratification of vocalizing with large areas of mucous membranes of mouth. Moses’ identification of the urethral voice. Initiation rites concerned with urethra. Parallel to vocal expression - nonsense sounds might imitate urination. The urethral voice "like pissing in hay." Sounds of elimination: "p" and "b" are primary expressions of babies belching and other elimination sounds occur in four-letter words, first encouraged, later tabooed (in middle class). Sounds of elimination, taking in, and retention (inspiratory). Alan Lomax: In New Guinea where they make war all the time, all consonants are inspiratory. Moses: "Belting" of pop music is sexual tension without release. Sound evinces great effort but not expressive of strength. Glottal stroke ("ack, ack" aggression, sudden displeasure) versus soft attack ("aah, I love it"). Cultures where emotion not displayed, Britain, Germany, have poker face: locked jaws and rigid facial expression. Monocle of Prussian upper class restricts facial movement. Vocal expression begins in brain. Excitement raises voice. Drunkenness (relaxation) results in loss of tonus required to activate vocal cords, voice gets lower. Artificially lowered voice (an attempt at authority in our culture) produces laryngitis. Examples of voice pathology related to emotional states and physical disabilities (vocal paralysis, cleft palate). Moses remarks that Alan Lomax's voice has register breaks that give it great charm. Items to look at in a voice; 5 Rs: range, rhythm, respiration, registers, and resonance. Persistent falsetto phenomenon in military figures. Bismarck's persistent falsettos would not be acceptable in public figures after invention of radio, but our grandfathers could express themselves in writing. Resonance versus register. Historical record shows thirty year cultural cycles in vocal style preferences. Primitive vocal style doesn't change. Pop is adolescent style, changes constantly.