Note: Sample of Javanese professional singer with orchestra using lots of ornamental sobs. Upward placed voice, narrowing of vocal chamber, nasality, and ringing sweetness. Lomax: With a wider keyboard for all the effects used also in folk songs, she embodies the crystallized ideal of Asian singing. Lomax: Real folk singers sing eight hours a day, conform to standards just as rigid as professional singers. Sample of Papua New Guinea male singers with intermittent falsetto. Abdominal versus laryngeal support. Different types of rasp. Louis Armstrong. Grating and buzz; use overtones and trachea participation below vocal cords in non-art music singing. Demonstration of grating voice on spectrogram.