Note: Talking drum analysis: possible relationship of drum language to African tonal languages. Ewe language, Gu, has fewer tones (two) than Yoruba (three). Ewe drums can be used for talking and non-talking. Usually first drum talks, second may repeat phrases of first, two drums give pulse. Result very complex. Gu is a mono-syllabic language - consonant plus vowel. Only two tones on lexical, three on syntactical. Drum language always deals with stereotyped formulas that people are already familiar with. Because of homonyms, drum messages must be longer to add context so listeners will know what is being referred to, eg.: "Alan Lomax, the big man from Texas, whose father? , whose beautiful daughter?." Drum messages often serve to anounce important arrivals or are joking, teasing messages about people. Alan Lomax: Information theory - to produce differences of text, dictionaries examine larger words, throw away small words. But when looking at literary style, they examine the small words. Victor Grauer: Are these stereotyped patterns rhythms? Rouget: Yes. Grauer: It's poetry. Rouget: Set of phrases makes a sentence. Non-poetic = no repetition. Everyone speaks in rhythm. Drum language interpolates nonsense syllables, plays with it. Non-speaking but repeating. Lomax: We are so lexically oriented that we don't notice that people do this all the time - add formulas that don't tamper with original lexical fragments. Speaking at the same time. This is tolerated in France, rare in Engllish. Occurs in West Africa, in informal settings. However, petitioner kneeling before King at court is allowed to state case without interruption as long as he wishes. Feast at end of trial, dancing, not speaking. Importance of language in pre-literate societies. At court each drum speaks, but only one makes whole sentences. Role of drum in choreographing dances. Excellence of drummer depends on ability to get people to dance and ability to drum for a long time and hold the listeners' interest (variation). Large repertoire helpful. End of tape: Drumming sample (?), choral singing with guitar (sounds extraneous).