Note: Analysis of sample of New Guinea courtship song. Pushed down larynx and tracheal sound. Paul Moses: this is a voice with a tremendous (but not isolated) head register flexibility. Not a tense voice but pressure in lower range. Impression of cold impersonality. Analysis of Eskimo voice: low baritone with "Russian" melodic features. Throaty, true rasp, low position of larynx. Length and frequency of pauses. African melody marked by timed, regular pauses, permitting other activity or alternation of roles. Use of dynamics as device to build up tension. Vocal expression of deprivation. Haiti. Vocal pathologies in homosexual community of San Francisco. Pathologies involve unnaturally restricted ranges and machine-like inflexible rhythms (as in schizophrenia). Use of falsetto effects in southern Spain, historically a center of falsetto singing schools. Discussion of muscular tension in singing and whether the cleaned up "Greek" ideal of round tones recommended as easiest by singing instructors is "natural." Alan Lomax: the true natural voice is full of "defects." Folk singers use different muscle groups without strain.